Origin of Goods

Question: What is origin? Why it is important?
Answer: Origin is the economic nationality of a good. The concept ‘origin’ is important because the calculation of customs duties and the application of commercial policy measures shall be determined on the basis of origin country. Furthermore, origin has importance in respect to keeping statistics of the foreign trade.
Question: What are the rules of origin?
Answer: The rules of origin are specific provisions used in order to determine the origin of goods. They are viewed under two main topics:
-Preferential Rules of Origin
-Non-preferential rules of origin 

Question: What are Certificate of Origin and EUR.1 Movement Certificate used for?
Answer: Certificate of Origin is used for demonstrating the status of non-preferential origin of goods. EUR.1 Movement Certificate is used in order to demonstrate that the goods are originated pursuant to related agreement rules and benefit from the tariff reduction while trading with a contracting country.
Question:  What is the difference between A.TR Movement Certificate and EUR.1 Movement Certificate?
Answer: A.TR is a document which is set for free circulation of goods in Turkey and the Community in order to benefit from preferential regime under Customs Union. It indicates that the good is in free circulation; it is not for the proof of its origin. However, EUR.1 Movement Certificate demonstrates the origin of goods.
Question: What is supplier’s declaration?
Answer: Supplier’s Declaration is the document demonstrating the status of preferential origin of a good which is released for free circulation and originating in a member state of the System of the Pan-European Cumulation of Origin.
Question: Is Certificate of Origin substituent for supplier’s declaration?
Answer: No. Because the Certificate of Origin is used for demonstrating the non-preferential origin of goods. However, supplier’s declaration is used for demonstrating the preferential origin of goods.
Question: What is invoice declaration?
Answer: Invoice declaration, like EUR.1 Movement Certificate, indicates the preferential origin of goods; it is exporter’s declaration of the fact that the goods covered by an invoice is originated according to agreement rules, on an invoice, delivery note or any other commercial document in written. For the goods valued under 6000 Euro,  invoice declaration can be set by all exporters but for the goods valued over 6000 Euro invoice declaration can only be set by approved exporters.
Question: What is Generalized System of Preferences (GSP)?
Answer: Generalized System of Preferences is an ex parte concessional application provided by Turkey to developing countries and least developed countries.   
Question: Is there any difference between Form A and Certificate of Origin?
Answer: Yes. Form A is used for demonstrating that the goods which is claimed to benefit from GSP is originated in a GSP country. In other words, it indicates the status of preferential origin of the goods. However, because the Certificate of Origin indicates the status of non-preferential origin of the goods, it does not provide the utilization of tariff reduction.
Question: What is post-clearance audit?
Answer: Any customs administration of importing country which has a suspicion on the accuracy of A.TR Movement Certificate and Certificates for proof of origin shall send these documents in pursuant of the related agreement provisions to the customs administrations of exporting countries on the purpose of verification of accuracy and compliance of the documents.
Question: Which document is set for goods covered by the ECSC?
Answer: Goods covered by the ECSC is out of the Customs Union between Turkey and EU. Trade of these goods are based upon the origin. Therefore EUR.1 Movement Certificate or Invoice Declarations are used as proof of origin.
Question: What is the System of Pan-European Cumulation/ Pan-Euro-Mediterranean Cumulation/ Western Balkans Cumulation? Which countries are included?
Answer: Pan-European Cumulation is a cross-cumulation system which includes EU, EFTA and Turkey. All countries in the system of Pan-European Cumulation signed the free trade agreement (FTA) among themselves and all the FTAs include same origin rules.
Pan-Euro-Mediterranean Cumulation is a cross-cumulation system which includes EU, EFTA, and Turkey besides countries taken part in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco). Unlike Pan-European Cumulation, all of the countries in the system of Pan-Euro-Mediterranean Cumulation have not signed FTAs among themselves. Therefore, the system called as variable geometry is valid. 
Western Balkans Cumulation is a cross-cumulation system which includes EU and Turkey (only for goods covered by Customs Union) besides Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia and Albania.

Question: I want to get information about the legislation relating origin at Customs Law and Regulations.  
Answer: Here is the legislation relating to origin:
  • Customs Law article 17-18-19-20-21-22 
  • Customs Regulations article 29-33-34-35-36-37-38-39-40-41-42